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Remove the orchids from the pot and place them in a wide basin. To make it easier for you to pull out orchids, remember slightly the walls of the pot. If this does not help - carefully, so as not to damage the phalaenopsis air roots, cut or split an old pot.
Usually, the more advanced the Root is in phalaenopsis, the stronger it "holds" the pot, and the harder it is to release it. However, if the orchid is weakened or sick, it has few living roots, then it easily goes out of the pot, just pull it slightly by the stem.
It should be washed and cleaned the roots from the remnants of the substrate. It happens that they are strongly intertwined with each other and it is very difficult to free them from the substrate. To easily clean the roots, pour a little warm water into the basin and lower them into the water for 10-20 minutes to soak. Do not leave the whole orchid in the water with the leaves, only the root system.
Then try to disentangle it with your fingers. Help yourself to a shower, direct a stream of water on the remnants of the bark to wash them. If some roots are firmly embedded in the bark, and not try to release them, so as not to injure.
Carefully inspect the root for the presence of rot. All rotten and dry roots must be removed. If only part of the root is damaged, cut only this part to a healthy (green or white) tissue.
Before the procedure of "cutting" the scissors must be disinfected with alcohol or hold over the fire, so as not to bring any infection through open sections.
After all operations necessarily treat the wounds of phalaenopsis.
You can: sprinkle with activated charcoal (crush tablets) or cinnamon, smear with garlic solution, cover it with sulfur, process with antiseptics, brilliant green.
Remove old yellow leaves if they are. Remove them carefully so as not to damage the other leaves, according to the following scheme: cut the leaf along the middle and remove it from the stem, pulling the cut ends in different directions.
It often happens that new roots grow on the floor of old lower leaves. If you want to deepen them into the substrate, then the lower leaves can be removed, even if they are NOT yellowed yet, because they will interfere with landing. Remove according to the same pattern as the yellow leaves.
You should also remove dried out or yellowed peduncles, leaving a small stump (0.7-1 cm).
All cuts, wounds on the leaves also need to be disinfected.
After you have treated all the wounds, you need to let them drag on and dry. You can leave the orchid for about 2 hours, and then continue the transplant. Or you can make a transplant in 2 stages: in the evening, say, do the first 4 steps, leave the orchids to dry overnight, and finish in the morning. By night, the slices will have time to better delay.
Only if you are going to leave the orchids for the night. Make sure that there is no excess water in the axils of the leaves and the core of the phalaenopsis, otherwise rotting may begin. Blot the water with paper napkins.
The next step is planting phalaenopsis. The ideal substrate for it is large pieces of bark. It is planted in the bark (usually pine), to increase the moisture you can add moss (sphagnum) to it. However, charcoal, cut wine corks or foam can also be used with bark. In such a substrate with large fractions, voids necessary for aeration are formed. Filling them with a smaller substrate is not necessary, as in the roots will be able to breathe.
Choosing a pot, focus on the size of the root system. The pot should be of such a diameter that when the root system is lowered into it, there would be 1-2 cm of free space on the sides.
If phalaenopsis is your first orchid, then be sure to take a transparent pot - it will be easier for you to care for it. You will see the condition of the roots and will be able to accurately determine when to water the indoor plant.
At the bottom of the pot we Lay a layer of bark of a large fraction. Then fill the layer of smaller pieces and place it in the same plant pot. Holding the plant by hand, add bark in small portions.
It is necessary to fill the whole space between the roots with the substrate. To do this, gently tap the walls of the pot with your hand, and push the individual pieces of bark between the roots with your hand or a wooden stick.
When planting phalaenopsis should be placed in the center of the pot. If its stems are even and slightly sideways, it is not necessary to plant it in the center. And do not try to straighten the stem, tied it up or propped up with something, it will still eventually roll over on its side.
DO NOT bury the base of the stem! Soot so that the upper roots were slightly covered with substrate.
Air roots, if they are small, can also be deepened into the substrate. But if they are long and there is a risk of breaking them, it is better to leave as is.
Repotted orchids for the first time, until She takes root, put in a shady cool place. Do not water it for about a week. At this time, you can spray the leaves, but only in clear and warm weather. If phalaenopsis is actively growing, it is recommended to add poorly diluted fertilizer to the water for spraying.
At the first watering it is advisable to add phytosporin or fungicide.